Agricultural Science Waec Syllabus for 2022

Below is this year’s Agricultural Science Waec Syllabus . Note that this syllabus is for both Internal and external candidates.


This syllabus has been designed to portray Agricultural Science as an applied science with emphasis on the acquisition of knowledge and skills associated with the content.  A general review of the Junior Secondary School Agricultural Science syllabus is presumed.

Candidates will be expected to answer questions on all the topics set out in the column headed syllabus.  The notes therein are intended to indicate the scope of the questions which will be set, but they are not to be considered as an exhaustive list of limitations and illustration.

Every school offering Agricultural Science must:

(i)   establish a farm where crops are grown;

(ii)  keep at least one species of ruminant  and one non ruminant;

(iii) establish a fish pond where feasible.

Candidates should have practical notebooks which should contain records of individual activities based on laboratory and individual observations carried out on the school farms, field trips and also records of specimens collected.  In order to enhance effective teaching/learning process and better performance of candidates, continuous assessment of candidates is recommended.

Since the main objectives of the Senior Secondary School Agricultural Science Curriculum are to:

  • stimulate and sustain students’ interest in agriculture;
  • enable students acquire functional knowledge and practical skills to prepare them for further studies and occupation in agriculture;

it is recommended that the study of Agricultural Science in the Senior Secondary School be supplemented by visits to well established government and private experimental and commercial farms, agricultural research institutes and other institutions related to agriculture.


There will be three papers: Papers 1, 2 and 3 all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be a composite paper to be taken at one sitting.

PAPER 1:       Will consist of fifty multiple choice questions to be answered within 50 minutes for 50 marks.

PAPER 2:         Will consist of six essay questions with each drawn from at least two themes in the syllabus. Candidates will be required to answer five of the questions within 2 hours 10 minutes for 90 marks.

PAPER 3:       Will be a practical paper for school candidates and alternative to practical paper for private candidates. It will consist of four questions, all of which should be answered within 1½ hours for 60 marks.

DETAILED    SYLLABUS                    

  (c)    Advantages and disadvantages of subsistence and commercial agriculture. (d)   Problems of subsistence and commercial agriculture.   4.      Roles of government in agricultural development   (a)     Agricultural finance: (i)           credit; (ii)         subsidy.   (b)   Agricultural education   (c)    Agricultural extension services.   (d)   Agricultural policies and programmes             5.      Role of non-governmental organizations in agricultural development   (a)    Meaning of non-governmental organizations (NGOs).   (b)    Roles of NGOs in agricultural development.     6. 7.      Agricultural laws and reforms   (a)     Land tenure systems in West Africa.   (b)   Government laws on land use in West Africa.   (c)    Advantages and disadvantages of the land use Act (Decree) and reforms in West Africa.                                  Assessment would cover past and present programmes e.g. OFN, ADP,  Farm Settlement, Agricultural Sector Rehabilitation Project (ASRP) and National Aids Coordination Secretariat.         Examples of NGOs West African Rice Development Association (WARDA), International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA), International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA), International Crop Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) would be assessed.             Assessment would include land use Act (Decree), Land Reforms in West Africa.
  B.   AGRICULTURAL ECOLOGY 1.       Meaning and importance of agricultural ecology (a)     Meaning of agricultural ecology and ecosystem. (b)   Components of farm ecosystem e.g. biotic and abiotic   (c)    Interactions of the components in the terrestrial and aquatic agro-ecosystem.               2.      Land and its uses (a)     Meaning of land.   (b)   Characteristics of land – free gift of nature, immobile, limited in supply etc.   (c)    Uses of land: (i)                 agricultural purposes: –          crop production; –          wild life conservation/game reserve; –          livestock production etc.   (ii)               non-agricultural purposes: –          industry; –          housing; –          transport etc.   3.      Factors affecting land availability for agricultural purpose (a)     Physical factors: (i)                 soil type; (ii)               topography; (iii)             land degradation; (iv)      soil pollution.                        Interaction of farm crops/animals with other components of the ecosystem in farm settings such as mono or sole cropping system, mixed cropping system, mixed farming system, fish ponds and forest (rain or savannah) would be assessed.       Assessment would include of uses of land for  aquaculture, forestry and apiculture.     Non-agricultural uses of land such as health centres, church/mosque, mining, recreational centres, schools and markets would be assessed.        
(b)   Biotic factors e.g. predators, parasites, soil micro-organisms, pests, pathogens and weeds; interrelationship such as competition, parasitism, mutualism (symbiosis). (c)    Edaphic factors: soil pH, soil texture, soil structure, soil type etc.   6.      Rock formation (a)     Types of rock: (i)        igneous; (ii)      sedimentary; (iii)    metamorphic.   (b)   Processes of rock formation.     7.      Soil formation and profile development (a)     Factors of soil formation: the parent rock, organisms, climate, topography and time. (b)   Processes of soil formation: (i)                 physical weathering; (ii)               chemical weathering. (c)    Soil profile development.     8.      Types, composition and properties of soil (a)    Types of soil. (b)   Chemical and biological composition of soil: (i)                 soil macro and micro nutrients; (ii)               soil water; (iii)             soil macro-organisms; (iv)             soil microbes; (v)               soil air. (c)    Soil pH. (d)   Physical properties of soil: (i)                 soil texture; (ii)               soil structure;  Assessment would cover identification, description and examples of rock types.   Assessment would cover how igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are formed.     The role played by each factor in soil formation would be assessed.     The meaning, importance, identification and description of each horizon of the soil profile would be assessed.     Assessment would cover types of soil and their separation into sand, silt and clay fractions, water holding capacity, porosity, capillarity, consistency etc.   Determination of soil pH, causes and correction of soil acidity/alkalinity would be assessed.
(c)    Roots and tubers e.g. cassava, yam, potatoes; (d)   Vegetables e.g. tomatoes, onion, amaranthus, okro, cauliflower, spinach; (e)    Fruits e.g. citrus, banana, pineapple; (f)    Beverages e.g. cocoa, tea, coffee; (g)   Spices e.g. pepper, ginger; (h)   Oils e.g. groundnut, sheabutter, sunflower, oil palm; (i)     Fibres e.g. cotton, jute, sissal hemp; (j)     Latex e.g. rubber; (k)   Others – sugar cane etc.   3.      Pasture and forage crops (a)     Meaning of pasture and forage crops. (b)   Uses of forage crops. (c)    Types of pasture. (d)   Common grasses and legumes used for grazing livestock. (e)    Factors affecting the distribution and productivity of pasture. (f)    Establishment of pasture. (g)   Management practices of pasture.   4.      Crop improvement (a)    Aims of crop improvement. (b)   Methods/processes of crop improvement e.g. introduction, selection, breeding. (c)    Mendel’s laws of inheritance. (d)   Advantages and disadvantages of crop improvement. E.  FORESTRY 1.       Forest management (a)    Meaning of forest and forestry. (b)   Importance of forestry. (c)    Forest regulations. (d)   Forest management practices. (e)    Implications of deforestation                           Assessment would include the botanical names and characteristics of common grasses and legumes used for grazing livestock.         Assessment would include the meaning of crop improvement. Definition of some genetic terms: characters or traits, chromosomes, genes, Mendel’s 1st and 2nd laws would be assessed.  
2.      Agro-forestry practices in West Africa (a)     Meaning of agro-forestry. (b)   Agro-forestry practices: (i)           taungya system; (ii)         alley cropping; (iii)       ley farming etc.   F.  ORNAMENTAL PLANTS   1.       Meaning and importance of ornamental plants (a)    Meaning of ornamental plants. (b)   Importance of ornamental plants.   2.      Common types of ornamental plants (a)     Types of ornamental plants according to their uses: (i)     bedding plants (mostly   flowering plants); (ii)    hedging plants; (iii)   lawn grasses etc. (b)   Examples of ornamental plants.   3.      Settings and location for planting ornamental plants.   4.      Methods of cultivating ornamental plants: (i)                 by seed; (ii)               vegetative propagation.     5.      Maintenance of ornamental plants.       G.  CROP PROTECTION 1.       Diseases of crops (a)    Meaning of disease (b)   General effects of diseases on crop production. (c)    Disease: causal organism,               economic importance, mode of transmission, symptoms,      prevention and control            Common tree species suitable for agro-forestry practices would be assessed.                     Assessment would cover identification of various types of ornamental plants.       The common and botanical names would be assessed.       Importance of each method and examples of ornamental plants propagated through such method would be assessed.   Reasons for carrying out maintenance operations: watering, mulching, pruning etc would be assessed.    
measures of the diseases of the following crops: (i)                 cereals – smut, rice blast, leaf rust etc; (ii)               legumes – cercospora leaf spot, rosette etc; (iii)             beverages – cocoa blackpod, swollen shoot, coffee leaf rust etc; (iv)             tubers – cassava mosaic, bacterial leaf blight etc; (v)               fruits- citrus gummosis, dieback etc (vi)             fibre – black arm/bacterial blight of cotton etc; (vii)           vegetables – root knot of tomato or okro, damping off, onion twister etc; (viii)         stored produce – mould etc. 2.      Pests of crops (a)    Meaning of pests. (b)   Classification of pests: (i)        insect-pests; (ii)      non-insect pests.   (c)    Classification of insect-pests based on mouth parts with examples: (i)   biting and chewing; (ii)  piercing and sucking; (iii)    boring. (d)   Important insect-pests of major crops; field and storage pests, life cycle, economic importance, nature of damage, preventive and control measures of the following major insect-pests of crops: (i)        cereals – stem borer, army worm, ear worm etc;            Assessment would include at least two fungal, two viral, two bacterial and one nematode diseases of the crops chosen from the list.                                
(ii)      legumes – pod borer, aphids, sucking bugs and leaf beetle; (iii)    beverages – cocoa myrids (capsids); (iv)    tubers – yam beetle, cassava mealybugs, green spidermites, variegated grasshopper; (v)      fibre – cotton stainer, bollworms; (vi)    fruits and vegetables – thrips, grasshopper, leaf roller, leaf beetle, scale insect; (vii)  stored produce – grain weevils, bean beetle.   (e)    Non-insect pests e.g. birds, rodents etc.   (f)    Side effects of preventive and control methods: (i)        chemical – pollution, poisoning; (ii)      biological ­- disruption of the ecosystem etc; (iii)    cultural – harmful effects of burning etc. (g)   General effects/economic importance of pests.   3.       Weeds (a)    Meaning of weeds. (b)   Types of weeds.   (c)    Effects of weeds on crops and economy. (d)   Characteristic features of weeds. (e)    Methods of controlling weeds:  cultural, biological, chemical, physical and mechanical methods.                                    Nature of damage, economic importance, preventive and control measures of each of the non-insect pests would be assessed         Common and botanical names would be       assessed.          
H.   ANIMAL PRODUCTION   1.      Types and classification of farm animals (a)    Types of farm animals: cattle, sheep, goat, poultry, pig, rabbit, fish etc. (b)    Classification of farm animals   according to: (i)   habitat – terrestrial and   aquatic. (ii)  uses – food, protection, pet          etc.   2.      Anatomy and physiology of farm animals   (a)    Parts of farm animals.   (b)   Organs of farm animals e.g. heart, liver, lungs.   (c) Systems of farm animals e.g. digestive system, circulatory            system, respiratory system.   3.      Animal reproduction (a)    Meaning of reproduction. (b)   Roles of hormones in reproduction of farm animals. (c)    Reproductive systems of farm animals. (d)   Processes of reproduction in farm animals. (e)    Egg formation in poultry.   4.       Environmental physiology (a)    Meaning of environmental physiology. (b)   Effects of changes in climatic factors such as: (i)   temperature; (ii)  relative humidity; and (iii) light on: growth, reproduction, milk production, egg production etc.                      Drawing and labeling of parts of farm animals would be assessed. Identification of important organs and their functions would be assessed.   Assessment would include the digestive system of poultry, differences between the monogastric and ruminant digestive systems.     Assessment would include oestrus cycle, heat period, mating, gestation period, parturition, lactation, colostrum, mammary glands, signs of heat, ovulation etc.  
5.       Livestock management (a)     Meaning of livestock management. (b)   Requirements for livestock management: housing; feeding; hygiene and finishing of at least one ruminant and one non-ruminant from birth to market weight. (c)    Importance of management practices.   6.      Animal nutrition (a)    Meaning of animal nutrition. (b)   Classification of feeds. (c)    Sources and functions of feed nutrients. (d)   Types of ration/diet and their uses; components of a balanced diet, production and maintenance rations.   (e)    Causes and symptoms of malnutrition and their correction in farm animals.   7.      Rangeland and pasture management (a)     Meaning and importance of rangeland/pasture to livestock and the characteristics of range land. (b)   Common grasses and legumes  in rangeland. (c)    Factors affecting the level of production of herbage; rainfall, grass/legume composition, grazing etc. (d) Methods of rangeland and     pasture improvement: controlled stocking, rotational grazing, use of fertilizers, introduction of legumes, reseeding, weed control, burning,  pest and disease control.      Assessment would include extensive, intensive and semi-intensive systems of management and record keeping in livestock management. The biochemical details of the nutrients are not required.   Assessment would include the types of diet for the various classes of animals, their characteristics and supplementary feeding. Assessment would include malnutrition related conditions such as ketosis, rickets.  
8.      Animal improvement (a)    Meaning of animal improvement. (b)   Aims of animal improvement. (c)    Methods of animal improvement: (i)   introduction; (ii)  selection; (iii) breeding. (d)   Artificial insemination. (i)        meaning of artificial insemination. (ii)      methods of collecting semen. (iii)    advantages and disadvantages of artificial insemination.   9.      Animal health management (a)    Meaning of disease. (b)   Causal organisms: viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa. (c)    Factors that could predispose animals to diseases: health status of animals, nutrition, management etc. (d)   Reaction of animals to diseases: susceptibility and resistance to diseases. (e)    Causal organisms, symptoms, mode of transmission, effects, prevention and control of the following selected livestock diseases: (i)   viral-foot and mouth, rinderpest, newcastle;   (ii)  bacterial – anthrax, brucellosis, tuberculosis; (iii)  fungal – aspergillosis, ringworm, scabies; (iv)             protozoa – trypanosomiasis, coccidiosis.    Assessment would include differences and similarities between breeds (local, exotic and cross/hybrid) and performance of animals.                                             The economic importance of the diseases would be assessed.  
(f)    Parasites. (i)   meaning of parasite. (ii)  types of parasites. (iii) mode of transmission, life cycle, economic importance and control of the following selected livestock parasites: endoparasites – tapeworm, liverfluke and roundworm; ectoparasites – ticks, lice.   (g)   General methods of prevention and control of diseases and parasites: quarantine, inoculation/immunization, hygiene, breeding for resistance etc. 10.  Aquaculture (a)    Meaning of aquaculture. (b)   Different types of aquaculture: (i)   fish farming; (ii)  shrimp farming; (iii)  crab farming. (c)    Meaning and importance of fish farming. (d)   Conditions necessary for siting a fish pond. (e)    Establishment and maintenance of fish pond.   (f)    Fishery regulations – meaning  and regulations. (g)   Fishing methods and tools.                                              Assessment would include aeration, stocking, feeding, harvesting, processing and preservation of fish.  
11.  Apiculture or bee keeping (a)    Meaning of apiculture or bee keeping. (b)   Types of bees: (i)  indigenous bees; (ii) exotic bees. (c)    Importance of bee keeping. (d)   Methods of bee keeping: (i)   traditional method; (ii)  modern bee keeping. (e)    Bee keeping equipment: bee hives, hive tools like suits, smokers, jungle boots, brushes etc. (f)    Precautionary measures in bee keeping: (i)  locate apiaries far from human dwellings; (ii) put warning symbols near apiary etc.   I.  AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS AND    EXTENSION   1.       Basic economic principles: (a) scarcity; (b) choice; (c) scale of preference; (d) law of diminishing returns.   2.      Factors of production: (a)  land; (b)  capital; (c)  labour – characteristics and    classification;   (d) management or entrepreneur.   3.      Principles of demand (a)    Definition of demand. (b)   Law of demand. (c)    Factors affecting demand for agricultural produce.                                                                            Rural-urban migration and how it affects labour availability in agricultural production would be assessed.
(d)   Movements along the demand curve. (e)    Shifts in the demand curve. 4.      Principles of supply (a)    Definition of supply. (b)   Law of supply. (c)    Movements along supply curve. (d)   Shifts in the supply curve. (e)    Factors affecting the supply of agricultural produce.   5.      Implications of demand and supply for agricultural production (a)    Price support. (b)   Price control. (c)    Subsidy programme and its effects on agricultural production.   6.      Functions of a farm manager (a)    Meaning of a farm manager.   (b)   Functions of a farm manager.   7.      Problems faced by farm managers   8.      Agricultural finance (a)     Meaning of agricultural finance. (b)   Importance of agricultural finance. (c)    Sources of farm finance. (d)   Classes of farm credit: (i)  classification based on length of time: –   short-term credit; –   medium term credit; –   long-term credit. (ii) classification based on source of credit: –    institutional credit; –    non-institutional credit. (iii)    classification based on liquidity: –  loan in-cash; –  loan in-kind.                                         Assessment would include the meaning of farm management  
    (e)    Problems faced by farmers in procuring agricultural credit. –       high interest rate; –       lack or inadequate collateral etc. (f)    Problems faced by institutions in granting loans to farmers: – lack of records and      accounts etc. (g)            Capital market. (i)  meaning of capital market, institutions that deal with medium and long term loans for agricultural business. (ii) institutions involved in the capital market (iii) sources of funds for the capital market: –       bonds; –       insurance companies; –       merchant banks; –       the stock exchange (sales and purchases of shares). (iv) roles of capital markets  in agricultural business: –       mobilization of long term funds for on-lending; –       reduce over reliance on money market etc.   9.      Farm records and accounts (a)    Importance of farm records. (b)   Types of farm records: (i)   inventory records; (ii)  production records; (iii) income and expenditure    records; (iv)               supplementary or special records. (c) Designing farm records                          Assessment would include the meaning of agri-business.                                    
  (d)     Farm accounts: (i)   expenditure/ purchases   account; (ii)  income/sales account; (iii) profit and loss account; (iv) balance sheet.       10.  Marketing of agricultural produce (a)     Meaning and importance of marketing of agricultural produce. (b)   Marketing agents and their functions. (c)    Marketing functions: (i)   assembling; (ii)  transportation; (iii) processing etc. (d)   Marketing

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