Africa has seen civil wars, genocide and political in stability since her regaining of independent. In this article we will be looking at the civil wars in Africa. Several conflicts have rocked various African countries over the years, leading to the death, injury and displacement of millions. There are current cases of political instability across the continent, with violence and unrest raging on in South Sudan, Burundi, and Somalia amongst other insecure countries. Against the backdrop of the unrest in these countries, we revisit seven civil wars in Africa, which we must never forget.
We know our mistakes more than those who always want to prop them up as mirrors for us to see. Wars or conflicts in Africa are not mistakes though; too much deliberation goes into that age-long, uniquely human atrocity. All the more reason we must never forget, so they do not happen again.
The list that follows is limited by the sheer number and kinds of wars and conflicts that have been fought on the continent. There was no criterion for choosing one and leaving out another. The 7 civil wars listed below is merely informational, targeted at those always saying, ‘‘We were never taught about the civil war in school’’, or a close variation, ‘‘We don’t talk about the civil war in my country’’.
However arbitrary and limited, it is hoped that the list would make us think or talk about wars in Africa. Because wars recur, have similar foundational causes. And now that our historical knowledge of these causes have to compete with the hardships or all the cool things of the present, we sometimes have to make do with action-packed cinematic renderings, love stories with African wars as backdrop, or listicles like this one.
9 Major Post-colonial Civil Wars in Africa
Sudan Civil Wars
Modern Sudan was birthed on 1 January 1956. Prior to that, the occupying forces, Britain and Egypt, merged Northern Sudan and Southern Sudan in 1946. The South wasn’t a party to the discussions.
Both regions were very different in culture and religion, and were previously governed separately. Yet in 1953 Britain and Egypt agreed to grant the monolithic Sudan independence. By August 1955, four months before the ceremonial independence of 1956, civil war between soldiers from the South seeking regional autonomy and the central government in Khartoum begun. The war lasted for more than 16 years.
There would be an even longer second civil war, a record 22 years, between Sudan People’s Liberation Army and Khartoum government, from 1983 to 2005. Six years later and a referendum, a new country South Sudan was born.
Nigeria Civil War
Nigeria gained independence in 1960, seven years later the civil war also known as the Biafra War started, from 6 July 1967 to 15 January 1970.
Some of the immediate causes of the war were the 15 January 1966 coup, counter coup in July 28 1966, and the subsequent mass murders of Easterners (mainly Igbos) in Northern Nigeria. This is one of the major Post-colonial Civil Wars in Africa
Uganda Civil Wars
In 1894 the area which is now Uganda became a British protectorate. Shortly after, the British signed an agreement with Buganda, making it a constitutional monarchy. Buganda kingdom dates back to the 14th century, it is the largest kingdom in Uganda, and constitutes about 16% of the population.
In 1967 the monarchy was abolished. What ensued afterwards was a mesh of coups, of intra and inter-country wars, and plain horror from 1971 to 1986.
Under the present government, judging by its modern history, Uganda has been relatively peaceful. Though from the 90s till date, there has been an ongoing war with rebels of the Lord Resistant Army.
African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) policemen on their way to General Kaahiye Police Academy to hand out supplies to the Somali police in Mogadishu. The Mission has almost single-handedly stabilised large parts of Somalia in the absence of the UN. (After the Black Hawk Down incident, the UN was just not prepared to engage.)
Rwanda Civil War
Rwanda gained independence from Belgium on 1 July 1962. Prior to that, a referendum was held to determine if the monarchical system of government which had existed since the 18th century should be retained.
The results were overwhelmingly against keeping the Tutsi monarchy in an independent Rwanda. In 1959 the so called Rwanda Revolution happened, which led to the majority Hutu taking charge of the newly formed republic. The violence from the Revolution made refugees of thousands of Rwandans, most of them Tutsis.
1994: Rwanda Red Cross volunteers monitoring and assisting displaced populations during the Rwandan Civil War. Photo: British Red Cross/Flickr
On 1 October 1990 the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), mostly Tutsi refugees who had fled to Uganda, launched an attack on Rwanda and began a war which ended temporarily in 1993, because of efforts of Organisation of African Union (OAU) now AU.
But in 1994 when a rocket shot down the plane carrying Presidents of Burundi and Rwanda, killing them both, the war started afresh and led to the Tutsi genocide.
Liberia Civil Wars
When the 1980 coup happened, Liberia had been a republic for over 100 years. The coup unsettled the previously peaceful country and created the actors, the environment for the civil war which started in 1989 and ended in 2003.
Somali Civil War
In 1991, a coup ousted dictator Mohammed Siad Barre, President of the Somali Democratic Republic. This shift in the balance of power sparked a twenty-plus-year civil war that killed as many as one million Somalis via violence, famine or disease. Following Barre’s removal from power, the Somali Democratic Republic divided into two opposing parties, the Somali National Movement in the North and the United Somali Congress of the South. This separation made it difficult to achieve control of the conflicting factions because no one ruling entity was recognized by all Somalis; those living in the north would not recognize authority from the southern faction, and those in the south opposed leadership from the Somalis in the north. The lack of a central government forced the U.S. to close its embassy that same year.
The United Nations and the United States became heavily involved in the conflict from 1992 to 1995, sending military forces and humanitarian aid to the country. The United States officially ended its involvement in Somalia in 1994 due to the lack of a foreseeable resolution and financial costs in excess of $1.7 billion. The Somali Civil War’s large death toll and protracted conflict could possibly have been avoided with earlier humanitarian action, according to a 1999 report commissioned by then-United Nations’ Secretary-General Kofi Annan. However, the heavy fighting between the warlords obstructed timely U.S. relief efforts in Somalia.
Mozambique Civil War
Unlike most African countries, Mozambique gained independence in 1975 through an armed conflict with Portugal. The war started on 25 September 1964 and ended 8 September 1974.
Two years after the war for independence, civil war between the ruling government and Mozambique Resistance Movement (RENAMO) started. Though that war ended in 1992, since 2013 there has been a resurgence of RENAMO militancy.
The two-year war between the neighboring countries of Eritrea and Ethiopia was triggered over a border dispute and claimed approximately 80,000 lives. The war began on May 6, 1998, when military and police from both countries exchanged fire in a rural area near the disputed border, and ended in 2000, between the months of May and June, after the two countries were able to negotiate a cease-fire agreement—called the Algiers Peace Treaty.
The Eritrean-Ethiopian War was classified as a “border war,” and the parties who negotiated the treaty took a purely legal stance at resolving the conflict, which left both sides unsatisfied and failed to ease tensions between the countries. Neither side wants a full-fledged war—Ethiopia because a war could reverse the country’s economic gains, and Eritrea, because its government knows it’s in a weaker political and diplomatic position. The result is a lack of dialogue and a climate of fear between the neighboring countries, which has led to economic tension, political unrest and a decrease of overall growth within the area.
These five examples of conflict and war from Africa’s history helped shape its past, and their intensely physical and psychological effects on humans could be felt long into the future. By examining the conflicts of Africa’s past, military historians can gain an understanding of how these conflicts negatively impacted economic and political development throughout many African nations.