Below is 2022 WAEC syllabus for  Yorùbá Language. Note that this syllabus is for both Internal and external candidates.


This examination syllabus is based entirely on the Yoruba curriculum developed by NERDC in 2007.


The syllabus is designed to:

  • enable candidates speak, read and write competently in Yoruba and communicate effectively with other speakers of the language;
  • familiarize candidates with the sound system, grammatical structures and other features of Yoruba Language;
  • acquaint candidates with the necessary tools needed for a thorough appreciation of Yoruba speech usage, literature and culture (customs and institutions).


The examination will consist of two papers, Papers 1 and 2. It will test the following aspects of Yoruba Language: comprehension, composition, sound system, grammar and translation. It will also test selected texts of oral and written literature as well as Basic Principles of Literary Appreciation, Customs and Institutions. The rubrics shall be written in Yoruba.

Also check:

PAPER 1 shall contain 60 multiple-choice objective questions on Language, Literature and Culture. The paper shall have three sections, Section A, B and C. Candidates will be required to answer all the questions in 1 hour for 60 marks. The questions shall be distributed as follows:


Comprehension (2 short passages)                  –           10 items

Composition                                                    –             4 items

Sound System                                                 –             6 items

Grammar                                                         –             6 items

Translation                                                      –             4 items

  • 30 items


Basic Principles of Literary Appreciation       –           4 items

Oral Literature            –           Prose   –  3

–           Poetry  –  3       –           9 items

–           Drama –  3

Written Literature       –           Prose   –  3

–           Poetry  –  3       –           9 items

–           Drama –  3

22 items

Section C: CULTURE

Customs                                                          –           4 items

Institutions                                                      –           4 items

8 items

Total    =          (30 + 22 + 8)   =          60 items


The content for Paper 1 shall be the same as for Paper 2

In Section B, all questions other than those on Basic Principles of Literary Appreciation will be on the set books for Paper 2

PAPER 2:      Shall be essay type questions on language, literature and culture. It will also have three sections, Sections A, B and C, have 2 hour duration and carry 100 marks.

Candidates will be required to answer six questions in all: three questions from Section A; two questions from Section B and one question from Section C. They will also be required to answer all the questions in Yoruba using the official Yoruba orthography and metalanguage.


Section A:       LANGUAGE


Candidates are advised to write 300 words and spend not more than 45 minutes on this section. The essay will be any of the following types:

  • Narrative
  • Descriptive
  • Argumentative
  • Expository
  • Dialogue
  • Debate
  • Letter writing

Sound System

Candidates will be required to answer one question from the two to be set.

Areas to cover include:

  • Vowels, Consonants and Syllabic nasal
  • their production in terms of place and manner
  • their basic phonetic and phonemic classification
  • Syllable structure
  • Sound processes, e.g. vowel harmony assimilation, elision
  • Sound system aspect of the orthography
  • Tones and tone notation


Candidates will be required to answer one question from the two questions to be made available.

Areas to cover are:

  1. Word structure and word formation
  2. Numerals: basic and derived
  3. Word classes: nouns, verbs, adverbs, pronouns, adjectives, etc
  4. Grammatical categories: subject, object, complement, predicate, number, person, tense, aspect, mood, etc.
  5. Phrases and clauses
  6. The structure and type of sentences.

SECTION B: Literature

This section is made up of Oral Literature and Written Literature.

Oral Literature – Prose, Poetry, Drama

In Oral Literature, there will be 3 set books covering the different genres. 1 question will be set from each set book and candidates will be required to answer any 1 of the 3 questions.

Written Literature – Prose, Poetry, Drama

In Written Literature, there will be three set books covering the different genres. One question will be set from each set book and candidates will be required to answer any one of the three questions.

SECTION C: Culture

This section will consist of questions on customs and institutions. Two questions will be set and candidates will be required to answer any one of them.

Areas to cover will include:


  • Make-up and adornments
  • In-door and out-door games
  • Pregnancy and its care
  • Naming
  • Home training: greetings, respect for superiors, cleanliness, tolerance, integrity, hard work, etc.
  • Yoruba foods
  • Non-verbal communication
  • Funerals: traditional and modern methods
  • Inheritance: traditional and modern methods.


  • Traditional occupations
  • Marriage
  • Politics: family structure, age grades, chieftaincy, Obaship, etc.
  • Child care
  • Ancestors
  • Yoruba beliefs about Olodumare (God), deities/divinities, other invisible forces, etc.
  • Modern religions: Islam, Christianity, etc.
  • Economy: adverts, money lending, cooperative efforts, etc.

NB:     To enhance the teaching of this language, it is recommended that schools provide audio-visual materials such as television sets, radios, tape-recorders and tapes, cameras, charts and artefacts.


              Author                                           Title                                           Publisher


  1. Abiodun, Jibola: (1996) Aroko Ati Aayan, Ogbufo.                 Majab (Ilorin)
  2. Owolabi, K: (1989) Ijinle Itupale Ede Yoruba               Extension Publications (Ibadan)
  3. Bamgbose, A: (1991)             Fonoloji Ati Girama Yoruba.              University Press (Ibadan)




  1. Ojo, Olagoke: (2005) Ijapa Tiroko Oko Yannibo                  Longman (Lagos)


  • Abimbola, Wande: (2004) Awon Oju Odu                            University Press Mereerindinlogun                                   (Ibadan) (ppi-xxxi; 52 – 96)


  • Ogunniran, L: (2007)            Eegun Alare                               Macmillan (Lagos)



  • Eso-Oluborode, Sunday: Olorunsogo                           Sumob Publishers (1994)           (Osogbo)


  • Olayiwola, Ademola: Akowe ko wura                      Extension Publications (2007)                                                                                                (Ibadan)


  • Awe, Debo: (2004) Apoti Alakara                         Elyon Pulibshers (Ilesa)


  1. Adeoye, C.L.: (1979) Asa Ati Ise Yoruba                University Press (Ibadan)
  2. Olajubu, O. (1978) Iwe Asa Ibile Yoruba             Longman (Lagos)
  3. Daramola, A. ati Jeje. Asa Ati Orisa                          Onibon-Oje (Ibadan)



Bamgbose (ed): (1983)              Iwe Ede Iperi Yoruba Vol. 1           YSAN/NERDC

Awobuluyi (ed): (1990)             Iwe Ede Iperi Yoruba Vo. ll           UPL/NERDC

Egbe Akomolede ati Asa           Eko Ede Yoruba Ode Oni SSI – III    Macmillan Yoruba, Naijiria: (1988)

Ajayi W.B.: (1989)                   Egberun Ibeere Ewonidahun               Hienemann

Mustapha D-et al: (1983)          Osupa Ede Yoruba I-III                      Nelson

“             “     (1987)          Iwe Eko Ede Yoruba Titun I-III         UPL

Owolabi, O. et al:  (1984)         Ijinle Ede ati Litireso Yoruba              Evans

Babalola, A. et al:  (1988)         Iwe Imodotun Yoruba I-III                 Longman

Awoyale, Y. et al:  (1984)        Eko Ede Yoruba Ode Oni JSI-III       Macmillan

Egbe Akomolede ati                 Yoruba Gbode                                     Macmillan

AsaYoruba, Naijiria: (1986)

Odujinrin, J.S.A.:                    Modern Lesson in Yoruba Part I-III     Odujinrin Publishers

Awobuluyi, O.            (1978)              Essentials of Yoruba Grammar             UPL

Bamgbose, A. (1967)              A short Yoruba Grammar                      Heinemann

Akinlade, Kola: (1987)           Owe Pelu Itumo                                     Longman

Fabunmi, M.A.(1969)             Yoruba Idioms.                                   AUP

Delano, I.O.                            Owe Lesin Oro                                   UPL

Koseemanii, Supo: (1987)       Owe ati Asayan Oro Yoruba              Vantage

Olopade, A: (1991)                 Asayan Akanlo – Ede Yoruba                        Gbemi Sodipo Press

Adewoyin, S.Y. (2006)          Imo Ede, Asa ati                                 Corpomutt Publishers

Litireso Yoruba 1-III


Alaba and Ogunsipe: (1982)   Iwe Afinimona Lori Awon                 Nelson

Iwe Fagunwa

Ogunsina, Bisi: (1981)            Iwe Akoyawo Alaye lori O le ku        UPL

Egbe Akomolede ati Asa        Ewi Yoruba Lakotun 1-III                 Evans

Yoruba, Naijiria: (2007)


Ladele, T.A.A. et al (1986)     Akojopo Ijinle Asa Yoruba                 Macmillan

Adeoye, C.L.: (1985)              Igbagbo ati Esin Yoruba                     Evans

Opadotun, O.: (1966)              Aroko                                                  Vantage

Adeniji, A.A.: (1987)              Ogun ni ile Yoruba                             Longman

Adeoye, C.L.: (1982)              Oruko Yoruba                                     UPL.

Leave a Comment